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"Jian She" poetry class, adjacent pair, wide pair

2021-09-01 17:15:00 Life journey

In the last section, we talked about the right , This section only talks about what neighbor pairs and wide pairs are ? What's the difference between it and a pair of workers ? The reason why we put adjacent pairs and wide pairs together , Because both are relative to each other , And it is closest to and different from the work pair , It is also used most in practical creation . Some people want to ask , Don't workers use the most ? Actually not. , Throughout ancient and modern poetry , Work couplets are not regular visitors , And the neighbors , Wide pair is the majority .

Work pair 、 Adjacent pair 、 The difference between wide pair , Mainly reflected in “ Similar parts of speech ” On these four words , Specifically , In antithetical sentences, the relative words of adjacent categories and non adjacent categories are used .

This is also where beginners are easily confused about learning to write duels . because “ The part of speech ” It is a concept only in modern Chinese , Noun 、 Adjective 、 These concepts of verbs did not come into being in the Tang and Song Dynasties .

Although Tang and Song poetry did not “ The part of speech ” The concept of , But it's better than “ The part of speech ” More detailed “ part of speech ” Concept , For example, nouns , In Tang and Song poetry , Common can be divided into more than ten categories : Astronomy 、 Seasonal 、 Geography 、 Palace class 、 Utensils 、 Clothing 、 Diet 、 Stationery 、 section 、 Animal species 、 Vegetation 、 Body class 、 Personnel 、 Human relations and so on . Verb 、 The classification of adjectives is also finer than that of modern Chinese . for example , Verbs are also divided into those that express actions ( Like sitting 、 Walk, etc. ); Expressing judgment ( " 、 Unequal ); Expressing psychological activity ( Like love 、 Hate to wait ); Expressing change or existence ( if there be 、 Wait ); Indicating a trend ( Such as out 、 Wait ). Adjectives are also divided into 、 Expressing the nature of 、 And the equivalent of the present intransitive verb . And some such as color ( red 、 Yellow 、 blue 、 green 、 Cang 、 brigitte 、 Cui 、 black 、 white 、 powder 、 Dai 、 plain 、 Let's go 、 Lather 、 purple 、 Dan 、 red 、 Ochre 、 Yin et al ), And the number 、 Orientation, etc. are all in a separate category .

One 、 Work pair In the work pair , Not only the same part of speech , And the categories should be the same . Proper nouns should be compared with proper nouns , And it's name to name , Place name to place name . for example , Du Fu's poems :“ Two Orioles are singing green willows ; A line of egrets on the blue sky ”. And so on : Li Bai 《 Tuck in the song 》 in :“ Xiaozhan follows the golden drum , Sleep at night and hold the jade saddle ” That's the right thing to do . Two sentences are opposite to each other , It's also a pair of workers . In Du Fu's poems “ The country breaks the mountains and rivers , The grass and trees are deep in spring ”, Mountains and rivers are geographically opposite , Grass and wood are plants , It's neat , So geography is neat for plants . Two 、 Right Wide pairs are distinguished relative to work pairs , Requirements for workers : part of speech ( Part of speech categories ) identical , Structure is the same , The rhythm is the same , If these three aspects are different , It is classified as wide pair . Different from work pair , In a wide pair , Most antithesis are relative according to the part of speech in modern Chinese , But the categories are different . But there are even parts of speech that are not relative . The ancients used couplets with the same part of speech but different parts of speech , All in wide pairs , For now , A few parts of speech are not relative, but also belong to wide pair . therefore , Wide pair mainly refers to the same part of speech , Different categories ; It also includes some cases where both are different . for example : Castle Peak is lucky to bury his loyal bones , White iron makes innocent ministers .

This subtitle is in the couplet of Yue Fei's tomb on the West Lake in Hangzhou ,“ mountain ”“ iron ”“ bone ”“ I ” It's all nouns . but “ mountain ” It belongs to geography ,“ iron ” It belongs to the class of utensils , It's used by geography ;“ bone ” It belongs to the form class ,“ I ” Human race , It's body to human relations . This is a pair of wide pairs . A little more relaxed , Even half right and half wrong . Like Du Fu's “ Take pity on my little children , I don't remember Chang'an ”(《 moonlit night 》) It's half to half wrong .

3、 ... and 、 Adjacent pair Adjacent pair , It is bounded between work pair and width pair . intend , Don't treat words of the same category as workers do , It refers to the use of adjacent categories of words for antithesis . For example, astronomy is relative to seasonal , Geography is relative to palace , Plants are relative to animals and so on . Like Wang Wei's 《 Put it on the plug 》:“ March out of Hansel , Return wild geese to Hutian ”, With “ God ” Yes “ stopper ” It's astronomy versus geography ; For example, Chen Ziang 《 Don't make friends on spring night 》“ Don't miss the harp , Don't go around the mountains ”, With “ road ” Yes “ hall ” It's geography to the palace .

The adjacent pairs are analyzed above , Right , The differences between them are pointed out , And it is different from the work pair . In fact, in actual creation , With what , It depends on the meaning . Do not " Because the word hurts the meaning ” That's all right. . Don't stick to work or what . As long as the meaning is perfect , It's good to be suitable for poetic expression .

We regard the relatively standardized neighbor pairs and wide pairs as antithetical, neat , But it's not called work in the strict sense . This kind of poetry accounts for the majority , Not one by one . Put my song 《 autumn night 》 Take it out , Please analyze the confrontation situation , Please send a comment to .

Take a stroll, walk slowly, even the dike is silent , The garden pavilions were invaded by the curtain . The water bank Jianjia empty moon shot , The rotten grass in the forest whispers . The numerous fireflies are unable to wear the flower path , The mist does not cloud the depth of the leaves . Don't shine autumn shadows on the pond , Back to the pond, the night and the wave sink .

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